Anal Cancer: Symptoms and Signs
People with anal cancer may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with anal cancer do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition that is not cancer.
- Bleeding from the anal area
- Pain or pressure in the anal area
- Itching or discharge from the anus
- A lump or swelling near the anus
- A change in bowel habits or change in the diameter of the stool
If you are concerned about any changes you experience, please talk with your doctor. Your doctor will ask how long and how often you’ve been experiencing the symptom(s), in addition to other questions. This is to help find out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis.
If cancer is diagnosed, relieving symptoms remains an important part of cancer care and treatment. This may also be called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care.
Anal Cancer: Diagnosis
- The type of cancer suspected
- Your signs and symptoms
- Your age and medical condition
- The results of earlier medical tests
In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose anal cancer:
- Digital rectal examination (DRE). During this test, the doctor inserts a gloved finger into the anus to feel for lumps or other abnormalities. General cancer guidelines suggest men have a DRE annually after the age of 50 and women have one during routine pelvic examinations. If you are at higher risk for developing anal cancer, your doctor may perform a DRE more often.
- Anoscopy. If the doctor feels a suspicious area during a DRE, this endoscopic test may be performed to take a closer look at the area. An anoscopy allows the doctor to see inside the body with a thin, lighted, flexible tube called an anoscope. Similarly, a proctoscope can be used to view the rectum in a procedure called a proctoscopy. The person may be sedated as the tube is inserted into the anus and/or rectum.
- Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. A pathologist then analyzes the sample(s). A pathologist is a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location of the tumor. For instance, an excisional biopsy can remove the entire lump if the lump is small and has not grown into other tissues. Lymph nodes may also be removed and examined in a biopsy.
- Ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of the internal organs. In an anal ultrasound, an ultrasound wand is inserted into the anus to get the pictures.
- X-ray. An x-ray is way to create a picture of the structures inside of the body using a small amount of radiation.
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. A CT scan creates a 3-dimensional picture of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. A computer then combines these images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan can also be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to provide better detail on the image. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill to swallow.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body. A special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to create a clearer picture. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill to swallow.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A PET scan is usually combined with a CT scan (see above), called a PET-CT scan. However, you may hear your doctor refer to this procedure just as a PET scan. A PET scan is a way to create pictures of organs and tissues inside the body. A small amount of a radioactive sugar substance is injected into the patient’s body. This sugar substance is taken up by cells that use the most energy. Because cancer tends to use energy actively, it absorbs more of the radioactive substance. A scanner then detects this substance to produce images of the inside of the body.